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Old 08-07-2017, 07:08 PM   #202
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Join Date: Jun 2001
Posts: 55,704
i mean, their sales pitch is always water from tap have this and that minerals/contents that are harmful to body. In a way, they are saying the quality of water from tap is harmful to human. Since they can make this statement why not challenge PUB then?
I think i can make my point to be clearer by re-posting the below.
There is nothing wrong with the incoming PUB water and they do test at multiple points and probably right up to the tanks.
It really depends on what are you using at home, right till the faucet end.

If you are talking about taking a sip of water from the toilet tap/kitchen faucet which is brass based (look at the connections that's under the sink, some are made of brass) by a kid who is thirsty right in the middle of the night (standing water in the pumbling), then i'd seriously not recommend that.


PUB side already does filtration. I feel now a days funny. We care so much cleanliness here and that yet eat unhealthy what the point
Really nothing to do with cleanliness or unhealthiness leh. See below....
Though for you as an adult and single, that might not be too much of an issue (the levels are not super duper high, deifnitely not like some USA's cases), that i'd agree with you that you are not exposed to much risks/effects.
For infants/kids/teens, the main risk is lowered IQ first and foremost. It's been researched that every 10 ppm lead intake reduces IQ points of about 2. Does this reduced IQ make you get lower grades/earn less money in your adulthood? That's for another thread.

Came across this very good article.

Done in Singapore with pumbling stuff that are available here in SG (all are PUB approved stuff), simulating end-users taps' conditions.
Received: 12 December 2015; Accepted: 23 February 2016; Published: 27 February 2016

2.1. Simulated Premise Plumbing System
To determine whether lead contamination in drinking water will occur in a “lead-free” premise plumbing system, a typical premise system was built using locally (Singapore) purchased materials as shown in Figure 1.
In Singapore, all water fittings used shall conform with the standards and requirements stipulated by the Public Utilities Board (PUB) and their use shall conform to the Public Utilities (Water Supply) Regulations and Singapore Standard Code of Practice (CP) 48. A water fitting shall be deemed to comply with the stipulated standards if it is certified by an accredited product certification body. The maximum allowable concentrations of metals leached shall not exceed the limits specified by the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality [28,29]. Copper pipes and brass fittings used in this study were microwave-digested and measured for lead content, and results showed that their lead content was <0.25% by weight, and thus can be considered “lead-free” according to the last “lead-free” definition by USEPA.

Residents moving into new buildings or renovating their plumbing systems are potentially at risk of lead contamination in their drinking water. Lead contamination due to the presence of a lead source is expected to persist for as long as many years if the situation is left untreated or the system is left untouched.

“Lead-free” brass fittings were identified as the source of lead contamination.

The system was assembled in the laboratory using all-new plumbing materials
and only certified copper pipes, brass fittings and stainless steel taps were used without any tapes, sealants and solders that may be present in field sampling. Many studies in the literature used either relatively short lengths of pipe (3 m) or single fittings to represent real distribution systems, while this study is specifically designed to represent real premise plumbing systems that use copper pipes.

The long experimental period allows us to show that lead contamination can be persistent in premise distribution systems and helps to fill the knowledge gap in the existing literature.

Acknowledgments: The authors thank the Singapore Ministry of Education (project number R-302-000-049-112) and National Taiwan University (grant number NTUCDP-103R7877) for financial support.
Author Contributions: Yi-Pin Lin and Ding-Quan Ng conceived and designed the experiments

1-hr ug/m3 + PSI

Last edited by WussRedXLi; 08-07-2017 at 07:21 PM..
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